twenty-six years, Marco Polo and his father Nicolo and his uncle Maffeo returned from the spectacular court of Kublai. Khan to their old home in. Venice. Keele University. The year marks the seven-hundredth anniversary of the initial composition of the book associated with Marco Polo, Le devisament dou. PDF | This article is about the trader and explorer. For other uses, see Marco Polo (disambiguation).

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, INTRODUCTION MARCO POLO, the subject of this memoir, was born at Venice in the year 1 He was the son of Nicolo Polo, a Venetian of. Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa. (PDF: Cor Hendriks, September ) according to the description of Messer Marco Polo, a wise and noble citizen of. C. Calendarof Documents relating to Marco Polo and his Family. t Of chapters so List of MSS. of Marco Polo's Book, so far asthey are known. G. Diagram.

Milione January , Sansoni. Benedetto , Asian Educational Services. Il "Milione" veneto: CM della Biblioteca civica di Padova , Marsilio. Il Milione , Einaudi Scuola.

The travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian: Libro de las maravillas del mundo: Il milione , L. Il milione , Edizioni paoline. The travels of Marco Polo , Facts on File. Von Venedig nach China: Jahrhunderts , Edition Erdmann. Libro de las cosas maravillosas de Marco Polo, Il milione , ERI. The travels of Marco Polo , Abaris Books. Il Milione: The travels of Marco Polo , Penguin Books. Il milione , Mursia.

Il Milione , Rizzoli. Il milione , Editori riuniti. The description of the world , AMS Press. Marco Polo , Adelphi. Milione , Adelphi.

Die Reisen des Marco Polo: The travels of Marco Polo , Folio Society. The travels of Marco Polo. Il milione , A. The travels of Marco Polo , Dell Pub.

The travels of Marco Polo , Orion Press. The travels of Marco Polo.: With 25 illus. Il milione , Mondadori. Milione , A. Il milione.: The travels of Marco Polo , Modern Library. The travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian , Doubleday. The description of the world , G.

The travels of Marco Polo , G. The book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian: Il milione: The travels of Marco Polo , Jonathan Cape. The travels of Marco Polo the Venetian , Dent. The travels of Marco Polo , The Modern library. The travels of Marco Polo , Random House. Il milione , Successori le Monnier. Commentato ed illustrato da Onia Tiberii. Secondo il testo della "Crusca", reintegrato con gli altri codici italiani, a cura di Dante Olivieri.

The travels of Marco Polo the Venetian. The travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian. Dent, E. The travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian , G. Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian: The bookof Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian: Travels of Marco Polo: Putnam's sons. With the addition of new matter and many new illustrations. First of all, it dispels several misunderstandings about the economic activities of the three elder Polos and the nature of their business relationship.

There is no evidence whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, suggesting that they were involved in the Black Sea trade or in exchanges with Mongol territories before Neither of them appears to have been very successful.

All of them actively engaged in trade. Eventually, after Marco remained the only legitimate offspring of the two Polo generations examined here.

However, once it is considered together with various items he owned at the time of his death, we may safely assume that he was mainly interested in high-value, low-bulk commodities.

This appears to have also been the case with his father and uncle Maffeo senior during their two extended Asian sojourns. They nevertheless enable us to gauge his economic status. He inherited from him both movables and immovables, though with the provision that the assets were to be transferred to other relatives should Marco the Traveller die without legitimate male heirs.

These sections consisted of 12 rooms, one more with a chimney, in which the members of the household gathered in the winter, and a kitchen. Until his death he actively contributed to the growth of his wealth by continuous personal involvement in business ventures.

He married Donata Badoer, as noted earlier. His third daughter, Moreta, married after his death in We may safely assume that he recorded at least some of his experiences and acquired knowledge in writing in the course of his stay in Asia.

Although he did not carry his notes with him, this would have clearly furthered the transmission of information to Rustichello da Pisa. The sources bearing upon Marco after his return from Asia support the reliability of his account even more than the probable existence of notes. Jacoby nature of the goods in which Marco traded or which he owned and their connection with his recorded experience in Asia substantially enhance the authenticity of his book.

Alan Stahl, Curator of Coins at Princeton University, for their precious advice regarding coins and monies of account. Their number has substantially increased since the publication of that inventory.

A listing of recent publications is excluded here for lack of space. Only those relevant to my argumentation are mentioned below. He claims that Marco did not accompany his father and uncle in Asia as a commercial apprentice and that he was not a merchant in later life.

There have been other reconstructions. Heyd, Histoire du commerce, 1: Lane, Venice and History, Larner, Marco Polo, 32— 3: Zorzi, Vita di Marco Polo, 10, All the manuscripts mention the year , which is obviously an error in view of the sequence of events that prevented the two brothers from returning to Constantinople in , after staying one year in Mongol territory: The pope had entrusted them with a diplomatic mission. Monticolo and Besta, I capitolari delle Arti, 3: The rock crystal presumably came from the Alps.

On its origin and on objects similar to those mentioned in the will of Pietro Vioni, see Hahnloser and Brugger-Koch, Corpus der Hartsteinschliffe, 5, 27 — 8, 42 — 3, 61— 2.

In the Seljuk sultan Kay-Qubad I had granted the Venetians total tax exemption on transactions in these commodities in his territory: Tafel and Thomas, Urkunden, 2: Joiaux was used both for gems and jewels. These would have then been downloadd from merchants who had brought them from Venice.

Marco Polo, Il Milione, 4— 5, chap. I, paras. The two brothers could have avoided that region by travelling to Constantinople by sea, yet refrained from undertaking the journey following the Byzantine recovery of Constantinople. It is impossible to determine whether they had died or whether he had remained single throughout his life. Jacoby [35] Moule and Pelliot, Marco Polo, 1: Tafel and Thomas, Urkunden, 3: Maffeo senior presumably died shortly after the drafting of his own will in The two brothers died a natural death.

On the other hand, Maffeo junior, who drafted his will in before leaving for Crete, appears to have died unexpectedly during the journey, possibly at sea. Marco Polo, Il Milione, 7, chap. He therefore places the death of Marco senior between that year and , when his nephew Maffeo junior drafted his own will without referring to him as being alive: Moule and Pelliot, Marco Polo, 1: However, Maffeo junior refers in that document to his own brother, Marco the Traveller, as partner in the joint property, and not to his uncle Marco senior: Around the ducat was the equivalent of 24 grossi or 64 soldi di piccoli.

On the immovables, see below. The nature of the goods they lost is unknown, yet see below. It is likely that the value of the hyperpyron of Trebizond was close to that of Byzantium at that time. As a money of account one Byzantine gold hyperpyron was then equal to 12 Venetian grossi a oro: It follows that 4, hyperpyra were equal to 48, grossi or , soldi di piccoli: Venice, Archiviod: Stato, Maggior Consiglio, Oeliberazioni, reg.

According to the equivalents mentioned above, n. However, Matheus Paulo is listed among the members of that institution without the name of his father: Cessi, Deliberazioni del Maggior Consiglio, 1: It is impossible to determine, therefore, whether he was the uncle or brother of Marco the Traveller or a namesake from another branch of the Polo family. Indeed, in the same period there was such a branch in the parish of San Geremia, likewise included in the sestiere of Cannaregio: See also several other documents from onwards, ibid.

This section of the will is reproduced in a verdict issued in Merchants usually kept some charters related to completed business operations in order to present them in court in case of litigation.


Marco presumably acted likewise. It follows that not all the documents necessarily dealt with ongoing business ventures. On musk in Constantinople, see below. Jacoby [75] Marco Polo, Il Milione, 59, chap. LXXII; , chap. CXVI; , chap. It is likely that the inaccurate description of the musk deer is due to Rustichello da Pisa, rather than to Marco the Traveller.

The calculation is as follows: The weight unit for the horsehair is not stated in the inventory, yet Venice weighed silk and horsehair setole di cavallo with the light pound: It is obvious that by the Venetians were familiar with such tablets. On the boghta, see Allsen, Commodity and Exchange, 17 — I wish to thank hereby Professor Marino Zorzi, Director of the Marciana, Venice, for drawing my attention to his note and for sending it to me.

I wish to thank hereby Dr. Ayers for sending me additional information about that vessel in a letter of 16 October Ayers, as above, n. On the use of buckles or clasps for the fastening of garments and the meaning of asola in the fourteenth century, see Levi Pisetzky, Il costume, — 6, See also Cecchetti, La vita dei Veneziani, It is unclear why Marco kept so many.

It is not excluded that he traded in them. Cecchetti, ibid. This must have also been the case with his second daughter, Bellela. Four years later, in , the emancipated slave obtained Venetian status, not to be confused with Venetian citizenship as often done, including by Yule and Cordier, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, II, , no. On Venetian status, see above, n. It is likely, therefore, that Marco also invested some of his own money in government obligations.

Marco Polo (pdf)

On trade practices, see above, n. XI and which is often mentioned in Venetian notarial charters. Yet neither of these authors offers precise indications about the nature of the silk fabrics mentioned by Marco. References Allsen, Thomas T. Asia Major 3rd series 2, no. Mediterranean Historical Review ———.

Commodity and Exchange in the Mongol Empire.

Cambridge University Press, Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 31 Ashtor, Eliyahu. Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Ayers, John.

Oriental Art 48, no. Bertolucci Pizzorusso, Valeria. Studi Mediolatini e Volgari 25 Reprinted in Valeria Bertolucci Pizzorusso, Morfologie del testo medievale. Il Mulino, Beugnot, Arthur A.

In Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, Lois. Blancard, Louis, ed. Borlandi, Franco. In Studi in onore di Amintore Fanfani. Cultura Nationala, Geuthner, Cahen, Claude. Presses Universitaires de France, Reprinted in Cahen, Turcobyzantina, no. Turcobyzantina et Oriens Christianus.

Variorum Reprints, Cardon, Dominique. Le monde des teintures naturelles. Belin, Carile, Antonio.

Studi Veneziani, new series, 1 Caro, Georg. Halle a. Niemeyer, — Cecchetti, Bartolomeo. La vita dei Veneziani nel Le vesti. Cessi, Roberto. Archivio veneto- tridentino 4 Deliberazioni del Maggior Consiglio di Venezia. Nicola Zanichelli, — Critchley, John.

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Ashgate, Dellacasa, Sabina, ed. Fonti per la storia della Liguria, no. Favaro, Elena, ed. Cassiere della bolla ducale. Grazie—Novus liber — Fonti per la storia di Venezia, Sez. I, Archivi pubblici.

Comitato per la pubblicazione delle fonti relative alla storia di Venezia, Guillelmus de Rubruc. In Sinica franciscana. Quaracchi Florence: Collegium s.

Bonaventurae, Gallo, Rodolfo. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere e Arti, Gay, Victor. Geanakoplos, Deno J. Emperor Michael Palaeologus and the West, — A Study in Byzantine — Latin Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Jacoby Goitein, Shlomo D. A Mediterranean Society: Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, — Hahnloser, Hans R. Corpus der Hartsteinschliffe des Heyd, Wilhelm. Harrassowitz, — Hughes, Muriel J.

Textile History 6 Jackson, Peter. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 61 Central Asiatic Journal 22 — 23 — Jacoby, David. Paul Lemerle ]: Reprinted in Jacoby, Studies, no. Studies on the Crusader States and on Venetian Expansion. In Storia di Venezia dalle origini alla caduta della Serenissima.

Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rich or Poor? In La seta in Italia dal Medioevo al Seicento: Marsilio, Reprinted in Jacoby, Commercial Exchange, no.

Byzantium, Latin Romania and the Mediterranean. In Dei Gesta per Francos: Kedar, and Jonathan Riley-Smith. In Novum Millennium: Dumbarton Oaks Papers 58 Commercial Exchange across the Mediterranean: Byzantium, the Crusader Levant, Egypt and Italy. In Urbs capta: Lethielleux, Komaroff, Linda, and Stefano Carboni, eds. The Legacy of Genghis Khan:Laiou, Angeliki E.

In Marco Polo Bibliography, — Tparan in Armenian. See also Cecchetti, La vita dei Veneziani, There is good reason to believe that Marco senior died shortly after the drafting of his will on 27 August Mondadori in Italian - 1.

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